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WINTERBOTHAM'S "THE ULTRA SECRET": 

A PERSONAL COMMENT Brigadier John H. Tiltman..l 

WEAPON THAT HELPED DEFEAT NAZIS . P. W. Filby 3 



MUM'S STILL THE WORD! 



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CUMULATIVE INDEX, 1974-1975 i! . . . 9 

GREAT SOVIET SHIPBUILDING MYSTERY n a viH H William 71 

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LINGUISTS FROM THE MELTING TOT 
CLA ESSAY CONTEST; CAA NEWS... 



THIS DOCUMENT CONTAINS CODEWORD MATERIAL 

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EiCM p t frsM GD 8 , EO 11 6 62* Categ or y 3 
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Declassified and Approved for Release by NSA on 1 0-1 1-2012 pursuant to E.O. 13526. 
[vlDR Case # 54778 . 



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Published Monthly by PI, Techniques and Standards, 
for the Personnel of Operations 



For individual subscriptions 
send 

name and organizational designator 
to: CRYPTOLOG, PI 



VOL. II, NO. 12 



DECEMBER 1975 



PUBLISHER 



WILLIAM LUTWINIAK 



BOARD OF EDITORS 

Editor in Chief Arthur J. Salemme (5642s) 

Crypt analysis (8025 s) 



Language Emery W. Tetrault (5236s) 

Machine Support (3321s) 



Special Research Vera R, Filby (7119s) 

Traffic Analysis... Frederic 0. Mason, Jr. (4142s) 



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WINTERBOTHAM'S jf |iH 



!"THE ULTRA SECRET" THREE VIEWS 



The following three articles deal in various ways with the publicity given 
in the British and American press and on television to F. W. Winterbotham ' s 
book "The Ultra Secret. " The first article, by Brigadier John H. Tiltman, 
deals with the accuracy of the statements in the book and the degree of harm 
done by them. The second article, by P. W. Filby, is a review of the book as 
assessed by a member of the team of s pecialists who worked the German diplo- 
matic problem. The third article , by \ \M542 3 gives a word 
of advice to those who might now be tempted to tell everything they know. 



A PERSONAL COMMENT 

By Brigadier John H. Tillman, PI 



When Winterbotham 1 s book was first published 
late in 1974 in England, some members of NSA 
who had served at Bletchley Park during World 
War II, on reading early reviews, assumed that 
it was officially authorised. This was defi- 
nitely not the case. Its publication was stren- 
uously opposed by British responsible authori- 
ties, who took legal advice on the probable 
consequences of prosecuting the author under 
the British Official Secrets Act. They were 
advised that prosecution could not be effective 
without the case going to court and evidence 
produced that British national security had been 
damaged by the book's publication with conse- 
quent public disclosure of more current intelli- 
gence activities. They therefore decided that le- 
gal action would probably do more harm than good. 



Another and perhaps a decisive factor making 
prosecution unlikely to succeed was the publi- 
cation in France in 1973 of Bertrand's book 
Enigma, ou La Plus Grande Enigme de la Guerre 
1929-1945. This revealed for the first time 
the fact of an analytic success against the 
Enigma and was decisive in the discussions 
between Deputy Director NSA and Director GCHQ 
on the matter of whether to attempt to restrain 
Winterbotham and his publisher. 

I am not alone in believing that an early 
official public description (perhaps a joint 
US-UK statement) of the basic facts of the war- 
time exploitation of the intelligence derived 
from the solution of the Enigma keys might have 
mitigated the damage done to security. Perhaps 
this could have been strengthened by a further 



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statement that the revelation of technical de- 
tails of the methods of solution would be resisted 
indefinitely. I realise however that there 
must be other valid arguments which persuaded 
the responsible authorities not to take such 
action. 

I myself took no part in the solution of 
Enigma keys in Huts 6 and 8, nor in its exploi- 
tation in Hut 3, but I am, I believe, the only 
person around who was on the directorate level 
at Bletchley Park during the war and had a hand 
in many of the policy decisions made regarding 
the production and use of the intelligence 
derived. 

The book is poorly written and very inaccu- 
rate in some areas where I know the facts. The 
references to the early history of Enigma solu- 
tion and to the activities of the staff of Hut 6 
(who performed the cryptanalytic part of the 
enterprise) are hopelessly wrong. It is diffi- 
cult to understand how the author who had con- 
siderable responsibilities for the organisation 
and distribution of Enigma intelligence could 
have been so completely ignorant of the techni- 
cal side of the operation. He doesn't know the 
difference between the Enigma (a rotor machine) , 
other German ciphers, the Japanese high-grade 
diplomatic machine (the "Purple," a totally 
different kind of machinel , and the Japanese 
Fleet general cipher (a codebook and additive 
hand system) . His remarks about the "Bronze 
Goddess" appear to be a complete invention. 

Some people gather the impression when they 
read the book that the author greatly magnifies 
his own part in the winning of the war. I give 
an example from my own experience. To quote 
some passages, "It was at this point that Men- 
zies told me he had decided to hand over my 
shadow OKW in Hut 3 to the General Administra- 
tion at Bletchley. One never knew where one 
stood with Menzies. He softened the pill by 
confirming me as his deputy, . . (p. 87). 
"Despite the loss of my personal control of Hut 
3 and the shadow OKW, I still had direct access 
to it when required. I was never told by Men- 
zies the real reasons for the takeover, ..." 
(p. 92). The facts are that I reported to 
the Director of Military Intelligence at the 
War Office, that Curtis, the War Office repre- 
sentative in Hut 3, in conjunction with Humphries, 
the corresponding Air Force representative, had 
on two separate occasions gone behind my back 
to recommend reorganisation of Hut 3 under their 
own more direct control. In consequence, a 
SIGINT Board meeting was called with General 
Menzies in the chair and consisting of the three 
Service Directors of Intelligence and Director 
GCHQ. At this meeting it was decided to with- 
draw Humphries, Curtis, and the naval represen- 
tative. 

I knew Winterbotham slightly and flew with 
him to Paris on the occasion of one of my offi- 
cial visits to France in 1940. His outstanding 
achievement was the establishment of SLUs (spe- 



cial liaison units) for the dissemination of 
ULTRA to commanders in the field. I have no 
reason to doubt that he records this faithfully. 
He gives rise to feelings of discomfort, however, 
when he describes his relations with the more 
high-ranking recipients of his wares. It ap- 
pears that Montgomery must have treated him with 
less courtesy than others and consequently he 
feels sure he himself could have fought Mont- 
gomery's battles far more efficiently! 

In view of its general inaccuracy, especially 
when touching on technical matters, I believe 
the book, taken by itself, does no harm. This 
cannot be said for the side effects it touched 
off. The first review I read was in the 
Washington Post by Al Friendly, who himself 
served in Hut 3. He headlines his review "Con- 
fessions of a Codebreaker." He gives the im- 
pression that for a great part of the war every 
telegraphic order issued by Hitler was currently 
on the desk of the Prime Minister and concerned 
Allied commanders. This is simply not true. 
Such a picture takes no account of the many dif- 
ficulties of the operation, the decisions to be 
taken on insufficient evidence as to priorities 
of attack on some keys to the exclusion of 
others, the many failures and delays, the early 
misunderstanding as to the real meaning of mes- 
sages, etc. The general success of the project 
was as much a triumph of organisation of the 
large-scale attack as of the ingenuity and 
persistence of the cryptanalysts, especially 
the mathematicians. 

Perhaps the most objectionable of the reviews 
was a long article in one of the London Sunday 
newspapers by Peter Calvocoressi . He was an 
important figure in Hut 3, presumably recruit- 
ed by Winterbotham. He is now, I believe, 
managing director of Penguin Books and was the 
joint author of a distinguished history of 
World War II. His article is an extremely 
well-written description of life in Hut 3, but 
he has gone further than anyone else in includ- 
ing a photograph of the German Service Enigma 
and in mentioning the Bombe. I believe this 
was the first time a picture of the service 
Enigma appeared in public print. Not even Bert- 
rand in his book Enigma gives a photograph of 
the machine. I am quite unable to understand 
Calvocoressi 's arrogant assumption that he can 
say what he likes in public now that Winter- 
botham' s book has appeared. I hold the view 
that everyone who worked in Bletchley Park is 
still under a moral obligation not to disclose 
secrets not previously published without offi- 
cial permission and, I would have thought, is 
aware of this obligation. 

Many of us were nervous of what David Kahn 
would have to say when his turn came to review 
the book. When his review did appear in the 
New York Review of Books, it was surprisingly 
mild and harmless. He, of course, is in a dif- 
ferent category. Not ever having been a part of 



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any Government agency, he cannot be regarded as 
subject to the same restrictions. 

Other reviewers have been influential jour- 
nalists who have taken the tone that the book 
has revealed the operations of World War II in 
a new light, that history will have to be re- 
written, that the British have told only part of 
the story and that they will have to tell the 
rest. I do not know whether we have heard the 
last of this attitude. 

Something has to be said about the paragraphs 
on page 14 of the book dealing with personali- 
ties. Winterbotham mentions the mathematicians 
Alexander, Babbage, Welchman, and Milner Barry, 
but doesn't seem to have heard of Turing, who 
is generally regarded as the leading genius of 
the methods of solution of the Enigma in its 
various forms. He says that "it was generally 
accepted that of our own backroom boys 'Dilly 1 
Knox was the mastermind behind the Enigma af- 
fair." I do not agree with this at all, 
though I am aware that he was in general charge 
of the analysis of the machine before the war 
and long before the British had any success in 
solution. Incidentally, Winterbotham seems to 
confuse Knox with Foss, who fits much better 
into the physical description in the book and 
who had some influence on early solutions before 



bombes became available. In his casual remarks 
about me, Winterbotham is somewhere near the 
truth: he says I had been borrowed from the 
Army. So I was -- 20 years earlier! Of Josh 
Cooper he says he was "another brilliant mathe- 
matician." Josh wasn't a mathematician at all 
--he was a very fine linguist. For no known 
reason, Winterbotham mentions Dick Pritchard. 
He was a regular Army officer who had been with 
me for 8 or 9 years, before the war, but he had 
nothing whatever to do with the solution of the 
Enigma. 

I think it quite likely that all this does no 
harm at all, but we cannot by any means be cer- 
tain of this. Therefore, we have to continue to 
try to withhold further disclosures, particular- 
ly on technical methods of solution. 

(IIVCCO) 



Brigadier Tiltman was Deputy Director 
and Chief Cryptographer, GCHQ, from 
1941 to 1946. Since 1964 he has been 
working at NSA, Fort Meade. He is 
a Commander 3 Order of St. Michael and 
St. George; Commander, Order of the 
British Empire; and Distinguished 
Member, CMI. 



ULTRA WAS SECRET WEAPON 
THAT HELPED DEFEAT NAZIS 
By P. W. Filby 



(UNCLASSIFIED) 



Shortly after the outbreak of World War II, 
the British Government acquired a stately home 
in a small town called Bletchley, a town re- 
nowned only for its railway junction and nearby 
brickyards . 

For the next few months civilians and service- 
men and women arrived in ever increasing num- 
bers, and hardly a house in Bletchley escaped 
billeting. The citizens wondered at the motley 
crowd, raffishly dressed for the most part, 
often absent-minded and all having a studious 
air about them. 

High iron fences were erected round the home 
known as Bletchley Park and armed Army guards 
were on duty at all times. The locals had to 
get used to comings and goings of their lodgers 
at all hours, and having taken in civilians 
they would suddenly see them emerge in full re- 
galia as officers of the three services, espe- 
cially when they made trips to London. 

Many guesses were hazarded but the only thing 
that could be said was that it was a secret de- 
partment -- and the secret was well kept, so well 
that it is not until now, thirty years later, 
that the Bletchley people and the world will know 
that the many thousands of people at the "Park" 
were working in enemy codes and ciphers. 



Group Captain Winterbotham has taken advan- 
tage of the "30-year rule" to describe the suc- 
cess of one group, "Hut 3." It is an absorbing 
story, and although the chief defect is that 
Winterbotham was not a codebreaker and therefore 
makes several wrong assertions, the book is one 
of outstanding interest, and readers will mar- 
vel at the war's greatest secret and how it was 
kept until now. 

Just before the outbreak of World War II the 
British had obtained by various means a complex 
machine known as "Enigma" which was being used 
for the encoding of the most secret and important 
German armed forces communications. After a 
prodigious effort the British cryptographers of 
"Hut 3" managed to break this machine and later 
built what might well have been the first com- 
puter, so that the communications could be read 
immediately upon receipt. 

To everyone's surprise, the Germans continued 
to use this machine throughout the war and thus 
most plans made by Hitler and his High Command 
were known to the British (and later, the Amer- 
icans also) at the same time as the German re- 
cipients. 

Radio operators in remote, lonely locations 
intercepted the messages, which were rushed to 



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Bletchley, often by motorcycle until more so- 
phisticated methods were evolved, and were 
promptly decoded and passed to the appropriate 
commands. The intelligence was code-named 
"Ultra." 

Astonishingly, there is nothine in captured 
German documents to suggest that anyone sus- 
pected that the most secret cypher code was 
being read throughout the war. Much of the 
credit for this were the rules laid down by 
Winterbotham for the "need to know." 

For instance, the Russians were never told 
of it, and the many free forces (French, Dutch, 
etc.) were not let in on the secret. Winter- 
botham toured British and American commands, 
lecturing users on this intelligence and warn- 
ing them care had to be taken on how the infor- 
mation could be used. 

For instance, although the presence of an 
enemy force might be given in detail by Ultra, 
to bomb it immediately would cause the Germans 
to wonder how the enemy knew of this force, so 
reconnaissance planes had to be used so that 
the Germans would suspect that they had been 
spotted from the air. 

Unhappily, it was not unusual for holders of 
the German plans to have to forgo using them for 
fear of compromising the cypher break. One such 
occasion was the bombing of poor Coventry; 
enemy plans were known beforehand, but to defend 
the city would have aroused German suspicions. 
Although attempts to defend were made, the popu- 
lace was not warned in advance. At that time it 
was not known whether German spies were working 
among the British. 

But the information was used with telling 
effect in the Battle of Britain, when the Air 
Force knew exactly the direction and the force 
to be employed in each attack. It is probable 
that Ultra did much to save Britain in those 
dark days. Everyone knew the Air Force could 
not withstand these onslaughts for long, but 
Ultra allowed them breathing space by parceling 
out the slender defense forces where needed most . 

Ultra played a particularly distinguished 
part in the North African campaign, where Mont- 
gomery was informed of Rommel's disposition of 
his forces and the extent of his supplies. Ul- 
tra also enabled supplies across the Mediterra- 
nean Sea to be sunk en route. Montgomery's face 
should be red, since he claimed verbally and in 
his books that he planned his battle order, but 
he acquired the record of invincibility only 
through his use of the information given by Ultra. 

With the British losing thousands of tons of 
shipping weekly, the decoding of the German 
Navy's messages provided a welcome respite, and 
from 1943 the losses were significantly reduced 
since the disposition of the U-boats was known. 

One wonders now just how the Normandy landing 
would have worked out without Ultra. Since de- 
coded messages told of the German belief that 
the attack would come from the narrow Pas de 

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Calais, General Patton arrived with a phantom 
army to give the impression the landing would 
indeed be tried there. Consequently Rundstedt 
and a vast army were kept there, reducing the 
defenses in Normandy. 

Ultra's strength was also shown when, in 
the Battle of the Bulge, the Germans relied on 
telephone rather than radio communications, and 
many lives were lost because the Allies could 
learn nothing of the German plans and intentions. 

These and other exciting stories are related 
in this absorbing book. It suffers perhaps 
because Winterbotham was a "go-between" rather 
than one of the codebreakers, and thus credit 
is not given to the mathematicians and linguists 
who worked long hours in stuffy rooms where, 
because of blackout precautions, fresh air 
seldom penetrated the smoke-filled atmosphere. 

Tribute must also have been paid to those 
radio operators, straining their ears when 
static and other conditions meant a missed 
group and maybe an important one at that, when 
the operator could not ask for a repeat -- 
these were the real heroes of one of the out- 
standing accomplishments of the war. 

One amusing tailpiece to the whole affair is 
the effect it will have on those whose memoirs 
have already been written. Many should now be 
rewritten; if Ultra did not actually win the 
war it will cause historians to revise what has 
been written thus far. Books such as "D-Day" 
are exciting reading, but the present work must 
be included in all war history collections from 
now on, since it will affect all war histories 
in varying ways. 

Winterbotham is rightly proud of Bletchley' s 
achievement, but he tends to forget that infor- 
mation, needs acting upon; it needs good generals 
and above all a great Air Force, Army, and Navy 
Fortunately the Allies had these too, and though 
Ultra was one of the most important contribu- 
tions to the victor/, Winterbotham perhaps 
overrates it a little. 

Sir John Masterman's book, "The Double-Cross 
System in the War of 1939-1945" (reviewed in 
these columns February 12, 1972) describes how 
captured spies were "turned around" and also 
contributed to the downfall of Germany. There were 
other great coups but Ultra and Double Cross must 
rank very high in the defeat of the Nazis. 



P. W. Filby, in addition to his 
SIGINT experience at Bletchley Park 
and GCHQ 3 is an "honorary NSA-er by 
marriage" (his wife is CLA President 
and CRYPTOLOG's SRA Editor Vera R. 
Filby). Mr. Filby is the current 
Director of the Maryland Historial 
Society, Baltimore, Maryland, The 
preceding review is reprinted in 
entirety from the Baltimore Evening 
Sun, June 10, 1975. (FOUO) 

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MUM'S STILL THE WORD! 
By 



M542 



Many people make their work and the organi- 
zation they work for an extension of their own 
egos, especially when the organization is per- 
forming a vital service to society. For most 
people, one of the most compelling motivations 
on the job is the quest for approval by their 
peers and supervisors. But we NSAers are not 
like "most people." True, we have always been 
able to rely on peer and supervisory approval, 
but we have never been able to derive ego grati- 
fication from identifying with NSA -- histori- 
cally, both the Agency itself and our specific 
jobs here have been obscured from public notice. 
Lately, however, the curtain cloaking our activ- 
ities has been lifted slightly. Winterbotham 1 s 
book The Ultra Secret and the follow-on revela- 
tions in the CBS television program, "Sixty 
Minutes," have provided the public with glimpses 
of the vital role that cryptology plays in pro- 
tecting our nation's security. Certainly, all 
of us must feel a sense of pride, and perhaps 
indulge our egos a bit, to see our Agency's 
vital function finally made known to the public. 
It ! s a very seductive thing. We plug along for 
years without public recognition. We strive con- 
stantly to overcome the natural urge to discuss 
our work with non-NSA friends, particularly 
when that work involves events taking place on 
the world stage. Then, suddenly, there ! s our 
organization, our work — us \ -- on the tele- 
vision screen, the front page of the newspaper, 
the public bookshelf. How easy it is to feel 
proud about finally getting public recognition. 
But that initial feeling of pride and personal 
gratification is soon outweighed by the disqui- 
eting realization that someone has talked, some- 
one has betrayed our tradition of keeping our 
mouths shut. 

The fact that such revelations do not always 
compromise sensitive information, as in the 
case of The Ultra Secret and the TV follow-on, 
does not diminish our feelings of dismay. That 
precious shell of anonymity — so carefully 
maintained over the years -- has been cracked. 
One can only expect that others will rush forth 
to ^ive their versions of past events and open 
that crack still wider. 




That our cryptologic operations are dis- 
cussed at all in the public media, no matter 
how many decades have elapsed, is the primary 
concern here. Journalistic appetite begets 
appetite and, once titillated by the morsels 
served up by disclosures such as those in Win- 
terbotham 1 s book, it tends to become ravenous 
for the whole pot. Those who were associated 
with the cryptologic effort in the past -- and 
the numbers are prodigious -- as well as those 
currently involved, are presented with a psycho- 
logical cop-out to indulge their. Egos3 6-3(8) 
talk about their work. After all, everyone else 
is doing it. Thus, revelation begets revelation. 

The publication of The Ultra Secret, however 
innocuous its specific revelations, can only be 
viewed with foreboding. It can only hasten the 
dropping of the next shoe. And when that shoe 
drops, we NSAers should remember, "Mum's still 
the word!" 



A Nazi submarine is shown under at- 
tack by American planes. Deciphering 
the Ultra code enabled AUied destroyers 
to sink many German U boats. 




> 



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GRAPHIC ANALYSIS OF LINEAR 
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CUMULATIVE INDEX, 19744975 



The following cumulative index of CRYPTOLOG (Vols. I and II, 1974±19%5)> was computer- 
produced using the Super Bee CRT/Tycom typewriter terminal on the B6700 \and programs 
written by George P. Woody P16. The index is printed in the middle of ihis issue so 
that it can be removed and used as a separate document if desired. 

The index is in two parts. The first part is an index of titles^ listed alphabeti- 
cally (1) by title and (2) by keyword in the title. The second part is an index of 
authors . In both parts s multiple entries are listed in chronological, sequence . 

Items in the double issue February -March 1975 are indicated by "Feb 75> " and those 
in the double issue August- September 1975 by "Aug 75." 



Abdul and His 40 Tanks 

Frederic 0. Mason, Jr Aug 75 

AFRIKAANS 

Language in the News — Afrikaans, Amerind, 
Arabic, Chinese, French, Hebrew, Lycian, 
Spanish, Portuguese, Russian, Swahili 
. . . Sep 74 

AMERIND 

Language in the News — Afrikaans, Amerind, 
Arabic, Chinese, French, Hebrew, Lycian, 
Spanish, Portuguese, Russian, Swahili 
Sep 74 

APOSTROPHE 
The Apostrophe — Some Thought's 

Vera R. Filby . Nov 74 

The Winnah--Kid Apostrophe! Oct 75 

An Approach to Callsign Analysis 

William J. Jackson Dec 74 



i 1 

COMINT Analysis of 
Derek K. 



Craig. . . . . . . . Sep 74 

Le tters to the Editor — 

article Dec 74 



EQ l, 



4.(c) 

86-36 



ARABIC 

Language in the News Afrikaans, Amerind, 
Arabic, Chinese, French, Hebrew, Lycian, 
Spanish, Portuguese, Russian, Swahili 
Sep 74 

Language in the News — Language Panel, NCS, 
Machine Course for Linguists, CLA News, 
Arabic Apr 75 

Are We Wasting Linguistic Time? 

Mary Roberta Irwin May 75 

AUTOMATED 

X Maunce Welsh Nov 75 

AUTOMATION 
Automation of a TA Process 

Tim Murphy Oct 75 



Basic Pat terns off 



Hcodes and Ciphers 
j* --* ..... ....... * • • Feb 75 



// ! p \ 

BEISBOL 

The Langu age of Beisbol in Everyday Talk 

Ramon Santiago-Ortiz. . . . . Aug 74 

BOOKBREAKERS 
Letters to the Editor — professional ization 
of Boo kbreakers [ i| \\ 

| H \ ] . Apr 75 

Le tters to the Editor — \\ \ \ 

I [ letter \ on Bookbr eaker s 

| ? I \T\ j May 75 

Let ters to the Editor !j ; 

I Hetter on Bookbr eak er s 

I "1 : J ; May 75 



Letters to the Editor 
sional ization of 



I — Bookbreakers; Profes- 
Country Specialists 

Jun 75 



Letters to the Editor -- f Pl letter on 

Bookbreakers \ Jun 75 

Letters to the Editor Rebuttal 

| | Aug 75 

CA 

TA, Handmaiden of CA 

Frederic 0. Mason, Jr May 75 

CAA 

Learned Organizations — 

CLA Essay Contest; CAA News .... Dec 75 

CALENDAR REFORM 
A Proposal for Calendar Reform 

Francis T. Leahy Dec 74 



Calling A H SRAs! 



SRA Symposium 



CALLSIGN 

An Approach to Callsign Analysis 
William J. Jackson* . • 



CAMINO 
CAMINO News 

CAMINO 



Aug 74 



Dec 74 



| , . A. ... Feb 75 
Electronic Warfar e Tenns 
| \ . . .\. . • Jul 75 



CAREER PANELS 
A Short Directory of Career Panels. 



. Aug 74 
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CARRIAGE 

Project CARRIAGE -- Worldwide HFDF 
Modernization Plan 

James B. Webster Sep 74 

The Case f or COMINT Readers 

j [ ...<,. Jan 75 



CENTRAL INFORMATION 
A Guide to Central Information — C5„ 

Character Building in the People's 



Repub 1 



c of China 



Apr 75 



Oct 74 



CHARACTER STREAM SCANNING 

I ~l Paper on Character Stream Scanning 
by Machine « . . . . Oct 75 

CHINA 

Character Building in the People's 
R epub 1 ic of China 



Oct 74 



EO 1,4. ( C) 

CIPHERS 



CHINESE 

Language in the News — Afrikaans, Amerind, 
Arabic, Chinese, French, Hebrew, Lycian, 
Spanish, Portuguese, Russian, Swahili 

. Sep 74 

Basic Pa tterns of I I Codes and Ciphers 

| | . . . . . . , Feb 75 



Basic Pat terns of T 



Hcodes and Ciphers 
T. . . . . . . Feb 75 



Co mputers. Comms. and Low-Grade Ciphers -- 



Oct 



75 



CISI 

Learned Organizations CLA, CMI, CISI 

Prizes and Honors, Spring 1974 • • • Au g 7 4 

Learned Organizations — CISI Forms 

Special Interest Group on Human Factors 

o*».ea.a DeC 74 

Learned Organizations — 
CLA Is Ten Years Old! 

News from CISI, CMI, IAI Jan 75 

CITIZENS OF THE WORLD 
Puzzle — Citizens of the World . , . . Dec 74 
Letters to the Editor — 
Citizens of the World 

I I . . . . . ... Feb 75 

CLA 

Learned Organizations — CLA, CMI, CISI 

Prizes and Honors, Spring 1974 . • • Aug 74 

Learned Organizations — 
CLA Is Ten Years Old! 

News from CISI, CMI, IAI Jan 75 

Language in the News — Language Panel, NCS, 
Machine Course for Linguists, CLA News, 



Arabic Apr 75 

Learned Organizations — CLA, IAI . . . May 75 
Learned Organizations — CMI, CLA . . . Jul 75 
Learned Organizations — 

CLA Essay Contest; CAA News .... Dec 75 

CMI 

Learned Organizations — CLA, CMI, CISI 

Prizes and Honors, Spring 1974 » • . Aug 74 

Learned Organizations — 
CLA Is. Ten Years Old! 

News from CISI, CMI, IAI Jan 75 

Learned Organizations — CMI, CLA . . .^jiil 1 ?^ • ( c ) 

P.L. 8 6-36 

CODE 

The Navajo Code Talkers Jun 75 



CODE CLERK 
Ps yching the Code Clerk — T 



L. D. Callimahos Apr 75 

Re-psychl ing the Code Cler k 

| |. . . . . . . Jul 75 

CODE RECOVERY 
Cryptanalysis and Code Recovery 

Marjorie Mount joy Sep 74 



P.L. 86-36 



CODES 
Basic Patterns off 



1 Codes arid CipheiSP 1 . 4 . ( c ) 
F<£>.G5 8 6-36 



CODEWORD 

"Codeword" or "COMINT Channel q"? 



Puzzle lirftflflftri Untlftw 



o . • 



]• • • * 



May 75 
Jan 75 



P.L. 86-36 



COLLECTION 

The New Collection Cri teria 

I | ; . ....... Dec 74 

COLLECTOR 

UNNA, I I EO 1 . 4 . ( c ) 

J. * . * . . . .... J®u ]75 86-36 

1 P.L. 86-36 

|. . . . .... Aug 74 



What is a 



T 



Cnnfif.r.or? 



COMINT Analysis of I I EO 1.4. (c) 

Derek K. Craig S^>.]34 86-36 

COMINT CHANNELS 
"Codeword" pr "COMTNT Channels"? 

| | . ..... May 75 

COMINT READERS 
The Case for COMINT Readers 

I I . . • . .Jan 75 p 8 6-36 



COMM CHANGE 
A Comm Ch ange at Ramasun Stati on 

I 3 - 



Apr 75 



Th e Warsaw Pact | 



f. . Jul 75 



December 75 * CRYPTOLOG * Page 10 



EO 1 .4 . ( c) 
P.L. 86-36 



S ECRET 



IIANDLD VIA COMIMT G11ANHLLG ONLY 



DOCID: 4009727 



SECRET 



P.L. 86-36 



COMMS 



Co mputers. Comms, and Low-Grade Ciphers -- 



EO 1.4. (c) 
P.L. 86-36 



75 



COMMUNICATIONS gATE^lTE 



J. . ... Nov 75 



COMPUTER 
The Yawn of the Computer Age 

or, Wh en Your Terminal Is Ter minal 

■ ~i ■ • • 



Jan 75 



Computers. Comms. and Low-GraHe rinhfty-Q 



o ... ... Oct 75 



COMP LITER NETWORK 
Computer Network Resources in C5 ... Aug 75 



c 



P.L. 86-36 



COMPUTER SYSTEMS 
Professio nalizing in Compute r Systems 

| \ . • ... .Jun 75 

COMSEC 

COMSEC Familiarization - Do You Need It?' 

Jun 75 

COUNTRY SPECIALISTS 
Letters to the Editor — 

Bookbreakers; Professionalization of 
Count r v Special is t s 

--- [ | Jun 75 



COURSE-EQUIVALENCY 
NCS Offers Course-equivalency Tests . . Nov 75 

COVERTERMS 
Coverterms 

Vera R. Filby ..... . . . Apr 75 

Letters to the Editor — I H article on 

Covert erms 

I | ..... . . Jun 75 

CRYPTANALYSIS 
Cryptanalysis and Code Recovery 

Marjorie Mount joy Sep 74 

New Trend s in the Teaching of Cryptanalysis 

I U ., . ... Nov 74 

CRYPT ANALYSTS 
What Should You Expect? 

or, Th e Analysis of C ryptanalysts 

| |. Aug 74 



CRYPT ANALYTICS 
Puzzle — Secret Messages, "Military 

Cryptanalytics" Dec 74 

CRYPTO 

More on Squaring the Page (A Crypto - TA 
Function) 

Frederic 0. Mason, Jr Jun 75 



CRYPTOGRAMS 
Secrets of the Altars ----- The Mous tier 
Crypto grams 

| | . Sep 74 



CRYPTOGRAPHIC _ 
Psyching the Code Clerk —I 



L. D. Callimahos. . . . . 7~ Apr 75 

CSI NEWSLETTER 
Establishment of CSI Newsletter . ... Dec 75 

EO 1.4. (c) 

C5 P.L. 86-36 

A Guide to Central Information C5. . Apr 75 
Computer Network Resources in C5 ... Aug 75 



DANANG 

The Danan g Processing C enter 
I I ' * # 



Oct 75 



DATA P.L. 86-36 

Data and Definitions— Calling Things 
by Their Rightful Names 

| [ -. . . . . / Nov 74 

DATA BASE 
The TEXTA Data Base 

William J. Jackson. /. . . . Aug 74 
How Clean Does a Data Base N eed To Be? 

| \ Jan 75 



The Warsaw PactT 



l 



| 4-(C) 

Frederick W. Walton, J*..i, 8 Qui 675 



DECRYPTION 



T 



J. . Nov 75 



DEFINITIONS 
Data and Definitions --Calling Things 
by The ir Rightful Names 

| | . . . . . . Nov 74 



P.L. 86-36 



Nov 75 



DESKPAD 

DESKPAD — A Programmer's Tool EO 1.4. (c) 

| | . . . . . E.^.. N6v-3^ 

The Devil's Dictionary. Feb 75 



DICTIONARY 

The Devil's Dictionary Feb 75 

Glossaries versus Dicftifenai9.fes^- 
Which Should It Be? 

Jacob Gurin Feb 75 



December 75 * CRYPTOLOG * Page 11 



SECRET 



HANDLE VIA COMIMT CHANNELS ONLY 



;EO 1.4. (C) 

DOCID: 4009727 P - L - 86 36 



I 



SECRET 



What? Where ? Why? 

~j , Nov 74 



| | Paper on Character Stream Scanning 

by Machine ... Oct 75 

DIRECTORY 

A Short Directory of Career Panels. . -.. Aug 74 

The Do Xa Pads 

Edward S. Wiley Oct 75 

DRAGON SEEDS 
Vietnam Articles in Dragon Seeds • . . Oct 75 

ELECTRONIC WARFARE 
The Role of the Electronic Warfare Advisory 
Elemen t (EWAE) of NSA 

I \ • • . Jun 75 

CAM I NO — Electronic WarTar e Terms 

| J . V . » . . Jul 75 



ELINT 
The Uses of ELINT 
I 



D "... .» * • • 



Le tters to the Editor 

I ~|article on ELINT 



1 . . 



. Apr 7.5 
. May 75 



ENGLISH 

Language in the News — English • • • . Dec 74 
Language in the News — English • • . • Aug 75 

Establishment of CSI Newsletter . . . . Dec 75 

Even a 5-year-old Child 

Emery W. Tetrault Oct 74 

The Faithful Echo - The Role of the 
State Department Inte rpreter 

I | * • . . . 4 . . Feb 75 

A Fix for the Language Problem? 

John B. Thomas, Jr. • • • • . Aug 75 

F lag-Waving Programmer 

George John Dec 74 

FRANCO PHONEGLOS 
FRANCOPHONEGLOS Printout VI Is Available 

Oct 75 

FRENCH 

Language in the News — Afrikaans, Amerind, 
Arabic, Chinese, French, Hebrew, Lyciari, 
Spanish, Portuguese, Russian, Swahili 

• • , i t t i . • . • Sep 74 

P.L. 8 6-3 6^ Old | I Section 

I | , Dec 74 

Gary's Colors 

Caterino Garofalo Sep 74 

GLOSSARY 

The New Traffic Analysis Glossary . . . Aug 74 



Ed 1 ,4. ( c) 



Golden Oldies — An Unofficial Glossary 

of Weasel Words Oct 74 

Glossaries versus Dictionaries 
Which Should It Be? 

Jacob Gurin Feb 75 

GOLDEN OLDIES 
Golden Oldies The Management Survey 

of the Philharmonic Aug 74 

Golden Oldies -- King Fngvh and Queen Deodi 

I t Sep 74 

Golden Oldies — An Unofficial Glossary 

of Weasel Words.. . / . . . . . . .. . Oct 74 

Golden Oldies — Establishment of 

Molecule Superseries. Feb 75 

Golden Oldies — SIMP Tables . . . . . Jun 75 

Golden Oldies ~ Rln* Rn^ian ; . 

I I . « ... . . , NOV W P • L • 8 6-36 

Graphic Analysis of Linear Recursive 

Sequen ces 

I V • Dec 75 

The Great Soviet Shipbuildin g Mystery 

I "| » Dec 75 

A Guide to Central Information — C5. „ Apr 75 

GUIDESMANSHIP 
Guidesmanship — or, How to Write 
Technical Manuals Without Actually 
Giving Anything Away 

| | , Nov 74 



GULF OF TONKIN 
The Gulf of Tonkin Incident 



, ... Feb 75 



GUPPY 

Replacem ent of the GUPPY Libr ary 

I I --. . Feb 75 

HEBREW P - L ' 86 " 36 
Language in the News — Afrikaans, Amerind, 
Arabic, Chinese, French, Hebrew, Lycian, 
Spanish, Portuguese, Russian, Swahili 
* . .... .Sep 74 

HFDF 

Project CARRIAGE Worldwide HFDF 
Modernization Plan 

James B. Webster, . . . ,/ . • Sep 74 
Hooray fo r PMDs? 



How Clean^Does a Data Base M 



. .. . • • . May 75 

Jan 75 



HUMAN FACTORS 
Learned Organizations — CISI Forms 

Special Interest Group on Human Factors 
Dec 74 

IAI 

Learned Organizations — 
CLA Is Ten Years Old! . 

News from CISI, CMI, IAI Jan 75 

Learned Organizations CLA, IAI ... May 75 



December 75 * CRYPTO LOG * Page 12 



SECRET 



HANDLE VIA COMINT CHANNELS ONLY 



DOCID: 4009727 



E O 1 . 4 . ( C ) 
P;L. 8 6-36 



S ECRET 



In Praise of SOLITS 

Louis C. Grant Nov 75 



. Nov 75 



INTERN PROGRAM 

A Long Hard Look at the Intern Program « 
Program Philosophy; Recruitment 

Anne Exinterne Sep 74 

A Long Hard Look at the Intern Program « 
Selection and Orientation 

Anne Exinterne Oct 74 

A Long Hard Look at the Intern Program -- 
Motivation and Morale 

Anne Exinterne Nov 74 

A Long Hard Look at the Intern Program 
What Happens to the Graduates? 

Anne Exinterne Dec 74 

Letters to the Editor — Intern Program 

Emery W a Tetrault Feb 75 

Letters t o the Editor Int ern Program 

| ~| . » » * ♦ . Apr 75 

INTERPRETER 

The Faithful Echo - The Role of the 
State Department Inte rpreter 



» » • » • 



Feb 75 



P«;yr.hing"tlft Code Clerk -T 



EO 1.4. (C) 

P.L. 86-36 

KING EUSYB 



L. D. Callimahos Apr /b 



Golden 01 files -- King Eusyb and Queen Deodi 

[ -.- -.. . Sep 74 



LANGUAGE 

The Langu age of Beisbol in Ever yday Talk 

I ZZI & 1A 

Ramon Santiago-Ortiz Aug 74 

Language Lessons Learned- -A P ersonal Memoir 



Tactical Language Exploitation- 
A Less on Learned _^ 



o Oct 75 
8 . Oct 75 



LANGUAGE IN THE NEWS 

Language in the News Afrikaans, Amerind, 
Arabic, Chinese, French, Hebrew, Lycian, 
Spanish, Portuguese, Russian, Swahili 
...... o Sep 74 

Language in the News — English . » • . Dec 74 

Language in the News — Language Panel, NCS, 
Machine Course for Linguists, CLA News, 
Arabic ^P r ^ 

Language in the News English • . . . Aug 75 

LANGUAGE PANEL 
Language in the News Language Panel, NCS, 
Machine Course for Linguists, CLA News, 
Arabic. » • - A P r 75 



LANGUAGE PROBLEM 
A Fix for the Language Problem? 

John B. Thomas, Jr. . „ . 



Aug 75 



LEARNED ORGANIZATIONS 
Learned Organizations — CLA, CMI, CISI 

Prizes and Honors, Spring 1974 • • • Aug 74 
Learned Organizations — CISI Forms 

Special Interest Group on Human Factors 

• ooa»a.oa«B09.oa.* DeC 74 

Learned Organizations — 

CLA Is Ten Years Olcf* 

News from CISI, CMI, IAI . . „ 
Learned Organizations — CLA, IAI 
Learned Organizations — CMI, CLA 
Learned Organizations 

CLA Essay Contest; CAA News . . • 



P.L. 86-i36 



o • 
o o 



o Jan 75 
♦ May 75 
. Jul 75 

Dec 75 



LETTERS TO THE EDITOR 
Letters to the Editor SRA Symposium Oct 74 
Letters to the Editor -| E(j i »ea.7£c) 

Letters t o the Editor - - Citizens of tffe.Karia6-36 

I I. ■ ...... . Feb 75 P.L. 

Letters to the Editor — Intern Program 

Emery W„ Tetrault « „ ..... . « Feb 75 

Letters t o the Editor — Int ern Program 

I ! * <> • « 9 • Ap r 75 



36-36 



Letters to the Editor — Professionalization 
of Boo kbreakers 

I 1 > ^ . , . . Apr 75 

Le tters to the Editor — 

1 article on ELINT 



P.L. 86-36 



Le tters to tne taxtor -- 



Letters to the Editor 

r 



T 



tetter on Bo okbreakers 



May 75 
May 75 
May 75 



Letters to the Editor - - Bookbreakers ; Profes- 
sional ization of Country Specia 1 ist s 



Letters to the Editor- 

Bookbreakers . . 
Letters to the Editor -> f 



Letters t o the Editor -- Rebut tal 



Jun TS^'p.l. 86-36 
J letter on 
. . . . . . Jun 75 

I article 

. Jun 75 



Aug 75 

Letters to the Editor — 

Typewriter keyboard Oct 75 

LEXICOGRAPHY 

Some Thoughts on Lexicography 

Stuart A. Buck Sep 74 



LINEAR RECURSIVE SEQUENCES 
Graphic Analysis of Linear Recursive 
Sequences 



y 



Dec 75 



LINGUISTIC 
Are We Wa sting Linguistic Time ? 



P.L. 86-36 



May 75 



December 75 * CRYPTOLOG * Page 13 



SECRET 



HANDLE VIA COMIWT CHANNELS ONLY 



DOCID: 4009727 



SECRET 



P.L. 86-36 



LINGUISTS 

Language in the News -- Language Panel, NCS, 
Machine Course for Linguists, CLA News, 
Arabic Apr 75 

Linguists — We Need an E xperts Yellow Pages ! .... 

| I • • . . o . . Aug 75 

Linguists — You Have an Exp ert to Call 



...... ■ " 

NCS 

News from NCS -- Agency Resumes Hiring of 
LICs; ; ..NCS Offers Course in "SIGINT 



Linguist s from the Melting P ot 



■. Oct 75 
. Dec 75 



A Long Hard Look at the Intern Program — 
Program Philosophy; Recruitment 

Anne Exinterne „ Sep 74 

A Long Hard Look at the Intern Program 
Selection and Orientation 

Anne Exinterne. Oct 74 

A Long Hard Look at the Intern Program — 
Motivation and Morale 

Anne Exinterne Nov 74 

A Long Hard Look at the Intern Program 
What Happens to the Graduates? 

Anne Exinterne. ....,<». Dec 74 

MACHINE COURSE 
Language in the News -- Language Panel, NCS, 
Machine Course for Linguists, CLA News, 
Arabic Apr 75 



MACHINE INTELLIGENCE 
Machine I ntelligence 



Pro mise or Delusion? 
. . • . Jul 75 



MANAGEMENT SURVEY 
Golden Oldies -- The Management Survey 

of the Philharmonic Aug 74 



MAPS 

Maps in M ind — A Photoessa 

i 



f.. 



. Dec 74 



The Mission of the 

Signal s Processing Requir ements Panel 

|. . . . . . Oct 74 



MOLECULE SUPERSERIES 
Golden Oldies -- Establishment of 

Molecule Superseries Feb 75 



Nov 75 



More on Squaring the Page (A Crypto - TA 
Function) 

Frederic 0. Mason, Jr Jun 75 

Mum ! s Sti ll the Word! ("The UL TRA Secret") 

| | , * * * * Dec 75 



The Navajo Code Talkers . 



. . Jun 75 



Appreciation' 1 . 



. Oct 74 



Language in the News — Language Panel, NCS, 
Machine Course for Linguists, CLA News, 
Arabic / . ./ . . Apr 75 

NCS Offers Course-equivalency Tests . . Nov 75 

The New Traffic Analysis Glossary ♦ . . Aug 74 
New Trends in the Teaching of Cryptanalysis 

| | . Nov 74 

The New C ollection (j riteria 



Dec 74 



News from NCS — Agency Resumes Hiring of 
LICs; NCS Offers Course in "SIGINT 
Appreciation" „ . . « . Oct 74 

Nice Busman's Holiday for One NSA Employee 

Barbara Dudley Aug 74 



1972-73- -A Vietnam Odyssey 

\ 



NSA-CROSTIC 
NSA-crostic No. 1 . 

An Octobe r Overlap 

tzzz: 



. . Oct 75 
. ... Oct 75 
. . Oct 74 



P.L. 86-36 



The 01d£ 



]Sect 



ion 



Horace Booth. Dec 74 

One Chance in Three — But It Worked EO 1.4. (c) 
William Gerhard .3)dW#6-36 



Oct 75 



ORAL REPORTING 
Oral Repo rting: A New Challenge for NSA 

. . . . Apr 75 P.L. 86-36 



OVERLAP 
An Octobe r Overlap 



Oct 74 



PADS 
The Do Xa Pads 



EO 1 .4 . ( c) 

P.L. 86-36 
Edward S. Wiley Oct 75 



A Personal Comment on Winterbotham's 
"The ULTRA Secret" 

Brig. John H. Tiltman . . . 



Dec 75 



PHILHARMONIC 
Golden Oldies — The Management Survey 

of the Philharmonic, . . . . , . . * Aug 74 



P.L. 86-36 



PMDS 

Hooray fo r PMDs! 



May 75 



December 75 * CRYPTOLOG * Page 14 



SECRET 



HANDLE VIA COMINT CIIANNELO ONLY 



DOCID: 4009727 



SECRET 



P.L. 86-36 



EO 1.4. (c) 
£.L. 86-36 

PORTUGUESE 

Language in the News — Afrikaans, Amerind , 
Arabic, Chinese, French, Hebrew, Lycian, 
Spanish, Portuguese, Russian, Swahili 
,\ ... Sep 74 

PRIZES 

Learned Organizations -- CLA, CM I, .CIS I 

Prizes and Honors, Spring 1974 . • Aug 74 



Processing 



C ommun ications 



Aug 75 



PROFESSIONALIZATION 
Letters to the Editor 
of Bookbreakers 



Professional izat ion 
]•» • *«oo. Apr 75 



Letters to the Editor -- 

Bookbreakers; Professional izat ion of 
Countr y Specialis ts 

^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ •»■■..,• . . • . a o . 



Jun 75 



PROFESSIONALIZING 
Professio nalizing in Compute r Systems 

PROGRAMMER 
Flag-Waving Programmer 

George John 

DESKPAD — A Programmer's Tool 

. .<>••• 



Jun 75 



Dec 74 
Nov 75 



Project CARRIAGE — Worldwide HFDF 
Modernization Plan 

James B. Webster., ...... Sep 74 

Project SYMBIOSIS 

Anonymous Jun 75 

A Proposal for Calendar Reform 

Francis T. Leahy. ...... Dec 74 



Puzzle CRY-PTO-LdGtolling 
Puzzle NSA-crostic Ho. 1 . 



. . Aug 75 
. - Oct 75 



RADIOTELE PHONE 
Puzzle --T~ 



I 



1 Radiotelephone ^ 



] 



. , Jun 75 



RAMASUN 

A Comm Ch ange at Ramasun Station 

| \ | .... Apr 75 

RANDOM 

Typewrite r Random — A Ne w Look EO 1 . 4 . ( c ) 

I I . . . . 8.6 75 



RAP IDT RAN 
RA PIDTRAN --T 



T 



Jul 75 



Reflections on a Transl at.nrs ' Conference 

| | • . . . . . Nov 74 

Replacement of the GUPPY Library 

L | • • . . . Feb 75 



Re-psychl ing the Code Cler ic 
I I • • 



REVIEW 

Review of "Guide to Russian Technical 
Transl ation. " bv Arthur J.. Salemme 

| | , . . . . . /. Feb 75 



Jul 75 

P.L. 8 6-36 



Ps yching the Code Clerk --T 



L. D. Callimahos Apr 75 



Purity of the Russian Language - 
Slavop hiles vs. Westernizers 

I 1 - 



Nov 74 



PUZZLE 

Puzzle — Stinky Pinky ........ Aug 74 

P.L. ^6^36 Puzzle Telephone Directory . . . . . Aug 74 

fl Puzzle Telephone Recall Oct 74 

j Puzzle --Secret Messages, "Military 

S Crypt analytics" . . . . . . .... . . . Dec 74 
Puzzle — Citizens of the World . . . , Dec 74 
Puzzle — Crossed Codewords 



Jan 75 



Puzzle 
Puzzle 



i 

■ Can You Make Out the Name? 

| I . Feb 75 

. How Many Words in "CRYPTOLOG"? 



Puzzle --T 



Radiotelephone | 



J" 



May 7! 



• Jun 75 



RIGHT-TO-LEFT TEXT 
Right-to-Left Text Sorts Are Not Impossible 

I "T . . . . . ... Aug 74 

The Role of the Electronic Warfare Advisory 
Eleme nt (EWAE) of NSA 

| | Jun 75 

RUSSIAN 

Language in the News -- Afrikaans, Amerind, 
Arabic, Chinese, French, Hebrew, Lycian, 
Spanish, Portuguese, Russian, Swahili 

Sep 74 

Purity of the Russian Language 
S 1 avo ph iles vs Westernizers 

T I. . ... Nov 74 



P.L. 86-36 



Review of "Guide to Russian Technical 
Translation," by Arthur J. Salemme 

i '■ ■ 



Golden Uldies 



Blue Russian 

I. 



Processing[ 



Commun ications 

I 



.... Nov 75 

ZZI 



] ,1 ...... Aug 75 



Secrets of the Altars — The Moustier 

Crypto grams j 

| Sep 74 



EO 1.4. (C) 
P.L. 86-36 



December 75 * CRYPTOLOG * Page 15 

SECRET 



P.L. 86-36 
1L\NDLE VIA COMINT CHANNELS ONL 1 ! 1 



DOCID: 4009727 



SECRET 



SELF-PACED INSTRUCTION 
Self-Pace d Instruction "T he Future Is Now" 
| ~| . . . . Aug 74 

SHIPBUILDING 
The Peat Soviet Shipbuilding Mystery 

| ] --. r", ... Dec 75 



The 



EO 1.4. (C) 
P.L. 86-36 



_Exercise — A Case Study 
in Special Research Analysis 

Vera R. Filby Oct 74 



A Short Directory of Career Panels. 

SIGINT USER'S HANDBOOK 
The SIGINT User's Handbook 
or, What's an Ishtar? 

I I • ....... 

SIGNALS PROCESSING 
The Mission of the 

Signal s Processing Require ments Panel 



Aug 74 



Jan 75 



SIMP TABLES 
Golden Oldies 



SIMP Tables 



Oct 74 



Jun 75 



SOLITS 
In Praise of SOLITS 

Louis C. Grant Nov 75 

Some Thoughts on Lexicography 

Stuart A. Buck Sep 74 

SORTS 

Right-to- Left Text Sort s Are Not Impossible 

| | . Aug 74 



SOVIET 



T 



] . . . . . Nov 75 



The Great Soviet Shipbuilding Mystery 



Dec 75 



SPANISH 

Language in the News — Afrikaans, Amerind, 
Arabic, Chinese, French, Hebrew, Lycian, 
Spanish, Portuguese, Russian, Swahili 

EO 1.4 . ( C ) co n 74. 

P.L. 86-36 

SPEC IAL RESEARCH ANALYS I 
The | l Exercise — A Case Study 

in Special Research Analysis 

Vera R. Filby . Oct 74 

A Spot by Any Other Name 

Vera R. Filby . Aug 74 

SQUARING THE PAGE 

More on Squaring the Page (A Crypto - TA 
Function) 

Frederic 0. Mason, Jr Jun 75 



SRA SYMPOSIUM 
Calling All SRAs! 



1 



SRA Symposium 



P.L. 86-36 



Aug 74 



Letters to the Editor SRA Symposium Oct 74 



STATE DEPARTMENT 

The Faithful Echo - The Role of the 

State Department Inter preter 

I I* • • • • « 



STINKY PINKY 
Puzzle -- Stinky Pinky 



Feb 75 



Aug 74 



SWAHILI 

Language in the News Afrikaans, Amerind, 
Arabic, Chinese, French, Hebrew, Lycian, 
Spanish, Portuguese, Russian, Swahili 
••»«•*••••••*. . p.. Sep 74 

SYMBIOSIS 

Project SYMBIOSIS v * • Jun 75 



TA 



TA, Handmaiden of CA 

Frederic 0. Mason, Jr.. ... May 75 
More on Squaring the Page (A Crypto - TA 
Function) 

Frederic 0. Mason, Jr.. . . . Jun 75 
Automation of a TA Process 

.Tim Murphy . . /Oct 75 



P.L. 8 6-36 



TACTICAL 

TRONHORS E — A Tactical SIGINT System 



A Tar.tjcaj ,, 



Tactical Language Exploitation- 
A Less on Learned 



Oct 75 



Oct 75 



TEACHING 

New Trend s in the Teaching of Crvptanalvsis 

.... Nov 74 



TECHNICAL MANUALS 
Gui desman ship — or, How to Write 
Technical Manuals Without Actually 
Giving Anything Away 

l- • • • • 



TELEPHONE 
Puzzle — Telephone Directory 
Puzzle -- Telephone Recall 

ZZI 



P.L. 86-36 

Nov 74 



Aug 74 
Oct 74 



UNNA,L 



[ 



Jan 75 



TERMINAL 
The Yawn of the Computer Age 

or, Wh en Your Terminal Is Ter minal 

i - ■ • 



TEXTA 
The TEXTA Data Base 

William J. Jackson. . . . / . Aug 74 



.Jan 75 

P.L. 8 6-36 



Too Many Garbles 



Jul 75 



December 75 * CRYPTO LOG * Page 16 



SECRET 



HANDLE VIA COMINT CHANNELS ONLY 



^M DCID: 400 912f7 



SECRET 



# 



TRAFFIC ANALYSIS 
The New Traffic Analysis Glossary . . . Aug 74 

TRANSLATION 
Review of "Guide to Russian Technical 
Transl ation." bv Arthu r J. Salemme 

1 I 1 . . . . . Ffth 75 

\PIDTRAN -,l 



Jul 75 



TRANSLATORS' CONFERENCE 
Reflections on a Translators* r.cnf&Tonr* 
P.L* 86-36 | [ . Nov 74 



VIETNAM 

Vietnam Articles in Dragon Seeds . . . Oct 75 
1972-73-- A Vietnam Odyssey " PtLt 



Oct 75 



VOYNICH 

The Voynich Manuscript -- Third Theory 

Doris E. Miller Aug 75 



% Q 1*4, (c) 
. . . P; t L»0(St67S6 



WARSAW PAPT 



TRANSPOSITION 
Twenty Years of Transposition 



Aug 75 



i 



TYPEWRITER 
Typewrite r Random — A New Look 

I I Aug 75 

Letters to the Editor -- 

Typewriter keyboard Oct 75 

ULTRA 

A Personal Comment on Winterbotham 1 s 

,f The ULTRA Secret" 

Brig. John H. Tiltman .... Dec 75 
ULTRA Was Secret Weapon That Helped Defeat 

Nazis 

P. W. Filby Dec 75 

Mum's Sti ll the Word! ("The ULTR A Secret") 

| | . . . . Dec 75 

UNNA 

UNNA, A Telex Toll gr. tor 



. Jan 75 



The Uses of ELINT 
I 



] . . ■ . . . Apr 75 



EO 1*4. (c) 
P.L. 8 6-36 



) v . . . . Oct 75 



j . . Jul 75 



WEASEL WORDS 
Golden Oldies — An Unofficial Glossary 

of Weasel Words Oct 74 

What Should You Expect? 

or, Th e Analysis of C ryptanalysts 

I 1 , Aug 74 

What Are We About? (Fragments, Figments, 



or Wha t?) 



Dec 75 



What is a Collector? 



When Cens orship Backfires 



J . . . Aug 74 

. . .. . . . Nov 75, 



Where Does "Does" Come From? 

Emery W. Tetrault . 



P.L. 86-36 



The Winnah Kid Apostrophe! . 

The Yawn of the Computer Age 

Or, When Your Terminal Ts TrWt^i 



. Jun 75 
/Oct 75 



J. . * . Jan 75 

YELLOW PAGES 
Linguists — We Need a n Experts Yellow Pages! 

I . . Aug 75 



# 



1 



The Gulf of Tonkin Incident. . . . . * Feb 75 
Tactical Language Exploitation- 

A Lesson Learned Oct 75 



3 



Graphic Analysis of Linear Recursive 

Sequences Dec 75 

Anonymous 

Project SYMBIOSIS • . . . ♦ Jun 75 



Self~Paced instruction — "The Future Is Now" 
Aug 74 



r 



g tLe Code Clerk 



Jul 75 



Letters to the Editor — Professionalization 
of Bookbreakers. . . . . ? . . . Apr 75 



The Uses of ELINT . . . . . . . , . . . Apr 75 

■ • 



The Role of the Electronic Warfare Advisory 
Element (EWAE) of NSA. , v * * . . . Jun 75 



::'::;r!:ilk,i„ 

P.L. 86-36 



The 01d | |Section. . . Dec 74 



] 



Le tters to the Editor —"--.„ 
I I article on ELINT 



December 75 * CRYPTOLOG * Page 17 



EO 1 .4 ♦ ( c) 
P.L. 86-36 
May 75 

P.L. 86-36 



*-■• » » * 



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1 



Maps in Mind — A Photoessay. 

Stuart A, Buck 
Some Thoughts on Lexicography • 



Dec 74 



Sep 74 



The New Collection Criteria Dec 74 

What is a Collector?. , ....„<>» • Aug 74 



L. D. Callimahos 
Ps yching the Code Clerk -f 



J Apr 75 



The Danang Processing Center. 



* . . Oct 75 



[ 



] 



IRONHORSE — A Tactical SIGINT System. . Oct 75 



DESKPAD — A Programmer's Tool. 



o . Nov 75 



Linguists — You Have an Expert to Call 
Co-author: Rhea Nagle. „ D . . Oct 75 



Derek K. Craig 
COMINT Analysis of 



Hooray for PMDs!. 

I 



Sep 74 
May 75 



] * . Oct 75 



The Mission of the Signals Processing 

Requirements Panel . Oct 74 

Barbara Dudley 

Nice Busman's Holiday for One NSA Employee 
<, . . Aug 74 



Anne Exinteme 
A Long Hard Look at the Intern Program -- 

Program Philosophy; Recruitment. . . Sep 74 
A Long Hard Look at the Intern Program — 

Selection and Orientation. . . . . . Oct 74 

A Long Hard Look at the Intern Program -- 

Motivation and Morale. Nov 74 

A Long Hard Look at the Intern Program -- 

What Happens to the Graduates? . . . Dec 74 



P.L. 86-36 



1 



]What? : ,WlLere.7...Wliy? .... . . Nov 74 

EO 1.4. (C) 

P. W. Filby P.L. 86-36 
ULTRA Was Secret Weapon That Helped Defeat 
Nazis Dec 75 



Vera R. Filby 

A S pot by Any Q-fr her Name. 
The! 



Exercise A Case Study 

in Special Research Analysis . . . . Oct 74 

The Apostrophe -- Some Thought's . Nov 74 

Coverterms ... . . , . . . „ Apr 75 



P.L. 86-36 



Typewriter Random — A New Look 

Caterino Garofalo 
Gary's Colors . . . . . . . . . 



William Gerhard 
One Chance i n Three But It Worked 



Aug 75 



>EO S f?4 7 . 4 (c) 
P.L. 86-36 

, . Oct 75 



1 



L ingui s t s from the Me 1 ting Pot . 



Dec 75 



P.L. 86-36 
EO 1.4. (C) 



Louis C. Grant 
In Praise of SOLITS 

Jacob Gurin 
Glossaries versus Dictionaries 
Which Should It Be? 



Nov 75 



Feb 75 



J 



What Should You Expect? 

or, The Analysis of Cryptanalysts* 
Secrets of the Altars — The Moustier 

Cryptograms 

An October Overlap 

Twenty Years of Transposition .... 



Aug 74 

Sep 74 
Oct 74 
Aug 75 



Letters to the Editor 

Bookbreakers; Professional! zat ion of 
Country Specialists. . . . . . ... . . Jun 75 



[ 



CAMINO News Feb 75 

Machine Intelligence — Promise or Delusion? 

Jul 75 

CAMINO — Electronic Warfare Terms. . . Jul 75 

Feb 75 



Puzzle — Can You Make Out the Name? 

^ Radiotel ephone T 



Puzzle 



EO 1.4. (c) 
P.L. 86-36 



. Jun 75 

December 75 * CRYPTOLOG * Page 18 



Character Building in the People's 
Republic of China 
Co-author: | | . » . . • • 



/'P.L. 86-36 
Oct 74 



Letters to the Editor — Q 
Coverterms 



]article on 
.,/'• . Jun 75 



1 



Puzzle 



Crossed Codewords 



Jan 75 



Data and Definitions -- Calling Things 

by Their Rightful Names Nov 74 



Mum's Still the Word! ("The ULTRA Secret") 
o Dec 75 



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# 



Mary Roberta Irwin 
Are We Wasting Linguistic Time? .... May 75 

William J. Jackson 

The TEXT A Data Base Aug 74 

An Approach to Callsign Analysis. . . . Dec 74 



New Trends in the Teaching of Cryptanalysis 

Nov 74 



George John 
Flag-Waving Programmer. 



Purity of the Russian Language 
Slavophiles vs. Westernizers . 



1 



"Codeword" or "COMINT Channels"? 



Dec 74 



Nov 74 



May 75 



] 



Lintmists _ -- You Have an Exne rt to Call 
Co-author: 



Oct 75 



1972-73— /V Vietnam OHv.ssev 
Co-author: 



The SIGINT User's Handbook 
or,.. .What's an. Tshtar?. . « 



Oct 75 

P.L. 86-36 
P.L. 86-36 
. o Jan 75 



The Faithful Echo - The Role of the 

State Department Interpreter .... Feb 75 



When Censorship Backfires ... ^ ... Nov 75 

1 



Reflections on a Translators' Conference. Nov 74 

... Dec 74 



Francis T. Leahy 
A Proposal for Calendar Reform 



[ 



The Yawn of the Computer Age 

or, When Your Terminal Is Terminal . Jan 75 



Golden Oldies — King Eusyb and Queen Deodi 
Sep 74 

Frederic 0. Mason, Jr. 

TA, Handmaiden of CA May 75 

More on Squaring the Page (A Crypto - TA 

Function) Jun 75 

Abdul and His 40 Tanks Aug 75 



Professionalizing in Computer Systems . Jun 75 



1 



Basic Patterns of\~ ""bodes and Ciphers 

. . . ' . . . . ' Feb 75 



C 



Linguists — We Need an Experts Yellow Pages] 
••■■»•■ • •••••••••••• Aug 75 

Doris E. Miller 
The Voynich Manuscript -- Third Theory. Aug 75 

Marjorie Mount joy 
Cryptanalysis and Code Recovery .... Sep 74 

Tim Murphy 

Automation of a TA Process Oct 75 



R APIDTRAN^T 



J . .Jul 75 



Language Lessons Learned — A Personal Memoir 
/ . Oct 75 



] 



EO 1.4. (C) 



Character Building in the People r sp # L. 8 6-36 

Republ ic of China 

Co-authoT:| [ . . .... Oct 74 

1 



P.L. 86-36 



A Comm Change at Rama sun Station* . . . Apr 75 



Golden Oldies — Blue Russian Nov 75 

1 



The Language of Beisbol in Everyday Talk 

Co-author: Ramon Santiago-Ortiz Aug 74 

The Case for COMINT Readers Jan 75 

Too Many Garbles Jul 75 

Ramon Santiago-Ortiz 

The Langu age of Beisbol in Eve ryday Talk 
Co-author: | | . . , ... Aug 74 P.L. 8 6-36 



"" 



Calling All SRAs! -- SRA Symposium 

— I 



Aug 74 



Nov 75 



EO 1.4. (c) 
P.L. 86-36 
Letters to the Editor -- Intern Program Apr 75 



1 



] 



Letters to the Editor 

[ 



Jletter on Bookbreakers . . May 75 

.Aug 75 



Letters to the Editor Rebuttal 



1972-73-- A Vietnam Odvssev 
Co-author: | | . . . 



Oct 75 P * L * 86-36 



1 



How Clean Does a Data Base Need To Be?. Jan 75 

l 



Processing[ 



] EO 1 . 4 . ( c ) 



Communications P \ L Auf 6 T5 3 6 



Replacement of the GUPPY Library. . „ . Feb 75 



P.L. 86-36 



December 75 * CRYPTOLOG * Page 19 

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.L. 86-36 



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Emery W. Tetrault 

Even a 5-year-old Child . .... ... Oct 74 

Letters to the Editor Intern Program. . Feb 75 

Where Does "Does" Come From* Jun 75 



[ 



Guidesmanship — or, How to Write 
Technical Manuals Without Actually 
Giving Anything Away Nov 74 



Co mputers. Comms. and Low-Grade Ciphers 



-1 

J. . Oct 75 



John B. Thomas, Jr 
A Fix for the Language Problem? .... Aug 75 

Brig. John H. Tiltman 
A Personal Comment on Winterbotham's 

"The ULTRA Secret" Dec 75 



1 



Review of "Guide to Russian Technical 

Translation," by Arthur J. Salemme . Feb 75 



Le 



1 



ters to the Editor -- 

letteT on Bookbreakers. . May 75 



Oral Reporting: A New Challenge for NSA Apr 75 



UNNA,[ 



Jan 75 



T he Warsaw Pactf 



\ . Jul 75 



James B. Webster "go 14 (c) 
Project CARRIAGE -- Worldwide HFDF p L R6-3 6 
Modernization Plan < Sep 74 



1 



J. . . Nov 75 



LCDR James T. Westwood 
What Are We About? (Fragments, Figments, 

or What?) Dec 75 

Edward S Wiley 
The Do Xa Pads Oct 75 



The Great Soviet Shipbuilding Mystery . Dec 75 



Letters to the Editor — 
Citizens of the World. 



• • • 



Feb 75 



Right-to^Teft 



Right-to-Left Text Sorts Are Not Impossible 

♦ Aug 74 



P.L. 86-36 



If your name is not included in the Hat of authors T names 3 and you have 
an idea for an article about a subject that hasn r t been dealt with yet in 
CRYPTOLOG: 




GECRET 



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P.L. 86-36 




THE GREAT SOVIET SHIPBUILDING MYSTERY 

P16 



4. (c) 
fc.L. 86-36 




December 75 * CRYPTO LOG * Page 21 

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Editor's note : Russian phonetic alphabets, like English ones, 
reduce ambiguity ("BORIS" sounds different from "VLADIMIR," 
just as "Mary" sounds different from "Nancy"). Since 
iphonetic alphabets are not used universally, transcribers of 
Russian voice often have as much trouble distinguishing between 



Remember that in the Soviet Union j 
too j engineers don ' t do things; the 
Day anybody else does. 




"BEh" (the name of the letter) and "VEh" as we ordinary tele- 
phone users have in distinguishing between English "em" and 
"en." But the transcriber of Russian voice has yet another 
problem (those Russian engineers again !). The names of Latin 
letters, as spoken in Russian, don't sound like "ay," "bee," 
"see" at all. Instead, they are based on the French namea of 
the letters. Hence, Latin H, as pronounced by a Russian engi- 
neer, is not like the English "aitch," but is "ASh" (French 
"ache"); Y is not "wye," but "IGREK" (French "y grec"). 

EO 1 . 4 . ( c ) 
P.L. 86-36 



December 75 * CRYPTOLOG * Page 22 

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The 



collection and dissemination of defense 
Intelligence, or any other kind of intelligence, 
does not have to be especially complicated, so 
long as certain fundamental principles and goals 
are kept in mind. Defense intelligence, in 
which NSA/CSS and the Service Cryptologic Ser- 
vices are heavily involved, should seek to 
answer certain elemental questions in peacetime, 
wartime, or several other somewhat nebulous "times" 
between peace and war. These questions include: 

■ Do we have an enemy/ adversary? If we do, 
who is he and why is he an opponent? 

■ Where is he and in what strength? 
m What are his intentions? 

■ What are his perceptions of himself, 
his own purposes and goals? 

■ Are his intentions consistent with his 
strength (capability)? If not, might he 
be practicing deception? 

Within defense intelligence, the business of 
signals intelligence is to "read the enemy's 
mail." This assumes that there is a bona fide 
enemy. Given the U.S. national interests, 
reading the enemy's mail requires a massive ef- 
fort. For one thing, it takes a vast amount 
of mail to yield real nuggets of value on a 
continuing basis. It follows that, if the 
processing and reporting effort ever catches up 
with the collection effort, we would be in real 
trouble because we would certainly have the cart 
before the horse. There is, however, a sometimes 
overlooked proviso in this relationship: Any 
major SIGINT effort whose thrust is not in line 
with reading the enemy's mail (in an admittedly 
broad sense) is probably superfluous and ought 
to be redirected or abolished, because resources 
are limited and we must, therefore, keep expen- 
ditures of those resources tied to our funda- 
mental purposes. 

Of course, "reading the mail" is a figurative 
phrase. It does not mean just CA and TA. It 
means all that we do with men and machines that 
allows SIGINT to work its effectiveness in terms 



of timeliness, uniqueness, and fidelity, that 
is, the faithful reflection of the enemy's in- 
tentions and activities. 

Intelligence, in whatever form and from what- 
ever source, is a service provided to decision- 
makers. Decision-makers are civilian and mili- 
tary officials with distinct responsibility and 
personal accountability for solving problems 
that affect the public welfare. To make effec- 
tive deployment of the people and property con- 
stituting their responsibility, the decision- 
makers need certain information, much of which 
we have come to call intelligence. But this in- 
telligence is not an end in itself. It does not 
exist to promote and serve itself. It exists to 
give decision-makers the best it can provide in 
the way of current, accurate, reliable informa- 
tion to answer the vital questions they have to 
answer. Additionally, and by its very nature, 
intelligence must be anonymous and quiet. A 
secret is best kept by not revealing it. Mr. 
Colby was recently quoted as saying, "Intelli- 
gence. . .will not work if exposed." 

There is no small amount of confusion and 
resultant ineffectiveness at large in the intel- 
ligence business today because of the tendency 
of intelligence producers to provide intelligence 
users with too much, too fast, too often -- 
that is, because of the "shotgun" approach. 
This tendency results from our attempt to cover 
ourselves against the possibility that we might 
fail to tell somebody something that he really 
needs to know. Morever, because we collect a 
lot of intelligence, we feel compelled to 
process a lot. That leads to wanting to report 
a lot, and, in turn, to inundating the user with 
so much intelligence that he cannot give certain 
portions of it the necessary attention. This 
gives rise to certain attendant problems: This 
tendency to broadfire intelligence then leads 
to the tendency for intelligence producers to 
dictate, however subtly or indirectly, how much 
of what kind of intelligence the users shall 
receive and, moreover, in what format and at 



December 75 * CRYPTOLOG * Page 23 



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what rate they shall receive it. These tenden- 
cies are especially visible in terms of SIGINT 
support to military commanders. The result in 
this instance is that we make military command- 
ers passive recipients of intelligence. An 
active role, with commanders saying, M This is 
what I want to know and this is how much I want," 
is precluded by a deluge of "This is what we 
want you to have." If this is drawn out to its 
ultimate conclusion, the presumed goal of 
"increased accessibility to intelligence prod- 
uct by decision-makers at all levels" is unat- 
tainable. 

Those who pay close attention to dissemina- 
tion might disclaim the existence of these ten- 
dencies. They might attempt to explain the 
present situation by splitting intelligence 
into "tactical" and "strategic." But the dif- 
ference between "tactical" and "strategic," to 
my mind, lies not so much in the nature and 
content of the intelligence itself, as in the 
level or scope of the decision-making that the 
intelligence is supposed to serve. For example, 
was it tactical or was it strategic intelligence 
which foretold the Chinese crossing of the Yalu 
River into Korea? Obviously, it was both: it 
was tactically useful intelligence to the 
field commanders in Korea, and it was also 
strategically useful intelligence to the Presi- 
dent and his Cabinet. We do our SIGINT profes- 
sion an immense disservice when we fragment 
our efforts and our product into pieces and 
parts in an attempt to serve two or more users, 
for example, the tactical commander and the 
national decision-maker. 

Perhaps we should devote some time away from 
the production process in order to get from all 
our users a clearer idea of what they would 



consider to be useful. Intelligence production 
today is much more efficient than ever before, 
given our increasing reliance on automatic data 
processing. Whether it is also effective is 
another question. Effectiveness is the accom- 
plishment of objectives -- the satisfaction of 
requirements. Machines are not a substitute for 
human judgment. Decision-makers want to know 
that human judgment has been brought to bear 
to weigh the significance of the intelligence 
that is being machine-processed so efficiently 
for them. 

Tactically, the fundamental questions have 
not changed since Moses sent spies into the Land 
of Canaan: Where is the enemy and in what 
strength? Strategically, basic questions per- 
sist: What are our interests and what and how 
much do we need to know about threats to those 
interests? 

What are we about, then? We are about the 
business of providing intelligence service to 
decision-makers. We ourselves are not those 
decision-makers and we must resist the tendency 
to confuse roles. It is not in the nature of 
our business to decide what is strategic and 
what is tactical. We have skills and facilities 
that can respond to intelligence needs at vari- 
ous levels, often simultaneously, but not by 
saturation. 

SIGINT is part of a larger intelligence busi- 
ness which, itself, requires us intelligence 
producers to integrate our efforts and to tailor 
our production and dissemination to answer the 
fundamental, but related, questions posed by a 
variety of users. Those users can best be 
served from the same, single set of resources 
if we all appreciate what we are about. 




NSA COMPUTER SYSTEMS INTERN PROGRAM 



The Intern Panel Advisory Board (IPAB) has established a new monthly 
publication, the Computer Systems Intern Newsletter, in order to provide 
"lines of communication both to and from the Interns themselves" and "to 
better inform and advise those associated with the Computer Systems Intern 
Program." The publication is classified FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY and began 
with the September 1975 issue. 



Anyone who would like to receive back is sues or to be pu t 



on the 



distribution list should contact the Editor, 
or 3469s 



R214, 3460s 



December 75 * CRYPT0LOG * Page 24 



(FOUQ) 



P.L. 



m 



36-36 



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UNCLASSIFIED 



LINGUISTS FROM THE 
M ELTING POT 

By I I 




For several years, NSAers who grade 
language hiring examinations have noted 
that people's names do not always match 
up with their expected language ability: 
an applicant named, say, Yamashita can 
score horrendously on the Japanese hiring 
examination, and someone named Olivetti 
can do just as badly on the Italian. But 
it is often difficult to convince managers 
commissioned to "solve the language prob- 
lem" that the solution to, say, the 
"Russian language problem" is not just a 
matter of running out and hiring 100 
American citizens with names like Ivanov 
and Fedorenko. T he following article by 
I I (N5A retiree) , which is 

reprinted from Keyword (November 1971) , 
deals with some of the reasons why Ameri- 
cans with foreign surnames often show a 
surprising lack of knowledge about the 
language they supposedly picked up at 
their mother's or grandmother's knee. 

It is a common belief that since a large 
part of the United States population is made up of 
immigrants and the children of 'immigrants there 
is a ready source of foreign-language talent for 
any emergency. To a degree this is true, but 
the source has many limitations. Any language 
must undergo changes if its speakers are moved 
to a strange environment, and the speech of the 
immigrants to the United States is no exception. 

If you examine the "Help Wanted" section of 
the German-American press, for example, you 
will find a large number of English words used 
to designate skills or crafts. At first there 
seems to be no pattern in the choice of German 
or English words, but the existence of Backer- 
geselle (journeyman baker) in one advertisement 
not far from another that seeks an erstklassigen 
body-and- fender-Mann (first-class body and 
fender man) suggests that the borrowings are 
in response to a world of labor in which there 
is a greater, or perhaps only different, spe- 
cialization. For the unfamiliar specialty the 
immigrant has a choice of coining a new word 
in his own language, or simply of borrowing 
directly from the other language. There are 
still other means of meeting the problem. 

The book I Trapiantati (The Transplanted) , 
written by Giuseppe Prezzolini, an Italian 
foreign correspondent in New York, and published 
by Longanesi & Co., Milano, 1963, contains 



two chapters dealing with this subject as it 
concerns Italian-Americans. Since the general 
situation presented may be considered typical 
of many immigrant groups, I have gisted them 
briefly below. 

Italians who visit the United States and 
come in contact with others who have settled 
here for one or two generations are amazed, 
puzzled, and sometimes horrified at the lan- 
guage they hear used by those who, like them, 
call themselves Italians. It is the same 
impression as that received by visitors, 
journalists, and consular employees who came 
here in decades past. What they heard was 
not Italian, it was not dialect, nor was it 
even English; still it was at the same time 
a little Italian, a little dialect (and this 
varied from place to place and sometimes from 
person to person) , but it regularly revealed 
an English- language base, pronounced in the 
Italian fashion, that is to say an English 
root, with the round, vowel endings of Ital- 
ian. For example there was: 



contrattore 
la tracca 
la grosseria 
il bordante 



contractor 
track 
grocery 
boarder 



Their amazement increased when they found 
this jargon written (often only approximately) 
in restaurant menus, the classified ads of Ital- 
ian-American newspapers, and even in official 
documents of American authorities who wanted to 
be understood by Italian immigrants. "American 
Italian" was a deformation of English rather 
than an adaptation of Italian. It was the re- 
sult of the effort made by a mass of poor and 
ignorant country people, dependent upon employ- 
ers who spoke a foreign language, to make them- 
selves understood by the latter and by their 
own fellow workers. 

Anthony Turano, an American writer of 
Italian origin, observed very correctly that 
the rural origin of most immigrants made a 
mechanical vocabulary difficult for them. To 
express their needs the southern Italian peas- 
ants were compelled to use English terms, 
since they had never known the Italian equiva- 
lents. But in adopting the English terms they 
transformed them, as best they could, by making 
them phonetically similar to Italian. Turano 
distinguished three categories of borrowings: 



P.L. 86-36 



P.L. 86-36 



December 75 * CRYPTO LOG * Page 25 



UNCLASSIFIED 



UNCLASSIFIED 



words remote from the immigrant's former 
life: 



sexa, sescva 

ranaio 

rodomastro 



(railroad) section 
ranch 

roadmaster 



■ words for things unknown to him before he 
came to America: 

fensa fence 
morgheggio mortgage 

■ words that stuck in the immigrant's mind 

by dint of constant repetition, even though 
he knew the corresponding Italian words: 

stritto street 
denso dance 
carro car 

There is also a well-known linguistic phe- 
nomenon by which a people when it accepts a 
foreign word finds one in its own language which 
is similar to it and which it adapts to the new 
use even though it may have a completely dif- 
ferent meaning. For example, 

sciabola (saber) shovel 1 

olivetta (kind of sausage) elevator, elevated 

tonno (tuna fish) tunnel 

At times the marriage of English and Italian 
involves a dialect, as in the case of coppastese 
(Neapolitan f ncuop + English stairs'), upstairs; 
or coppetane ('ncuop + English town)* uptown. 
The Sicilians, however, do not use this expres- 
sion, but instead say oppitauni. 

In making a list of words in the American 
Italian jargon, it is easy to see that the 
proportion of adjectives to nouns is very 
small much smaller than in either Italian or 
English. The immigrant had to be able to ex- 
press pezge* (dollars), or bosso (boss), but 
not necessarily "pretty" or "good'' or "true" or 
"false." Orrel (Hurray!), an expression from 
the American- Italian variety shows, barely re- 
veals a feeling of admiration, and naise (nice) 
a favorable opinion. 

At first, newspapers in the Italian language 
adhered fairly closely to standard Italian, but 
after about 1900 the flood of classified adver- 
tisements made it impossible to conceal or trans- 



Another observer mentioned his amazement 
at being told by an immigrant countryman that 
there was plenty of work in the United States 
for a man who knew how to use piooa e sciabola , 
which in Italian means "pike and saber," but in 
American Italian, "pick and shovel." (R.E.G.) 

2 Pezze may be used because of Spanish peso. 
The word was commonly used in Nevada in a rudi- 
mentary Spanish- Italian jargon used by immi- 
grant laborers of both nationalities when work- 
ing together. Saudi and dollari were used by 
other Italian speakers, as I recall. (R.E.G.) 



late the jargon of the Italian-American working 
man. In the Bolletino delta Sera in 1917, ad- 
vertisements are found for: 

sceperi shapers (of garments) 

pvessatori pressers 
sottopressatori pressers' helpers 

There were also to be seen advertisements for a 
mezzo-barista (a man to work half a day in a 
bar) . In these pages a country place was always 
a forma (farm) . Heating was done with stima 
(steam, but meaning in Italian esteem), and a 
frequent advertisement was for sale of a oasa 
senza stima — a house without heat or without 
esteem, depending on how well you understood 
American English. 

This occurs less and less frequently. Such 
expressions have almost disappeared from the 
classified advertisements of II Progresso 
Italo- Americano , not because the older genera- 
tion doesn't still use them, but because that 
generation no longer has to work. The new 
generation of Italians who are looking for 
work know Italian pretty well and do not need 
the job opportunities translated into jargon. 
Nobody is trying to buy a fruttistenne (fruit 
stand) any more. 

Prezzolini feels that the whole of this 
interlingua will probably have ceased to exist 
within a few generations* since the more recent 
immigrants (much fewer in number) arrive under 
quite different circumstances. In Italy they 
have learned the logical bases of the Italian 
language (it must be remembered that a large 
part of the older immigration was illiterate) 
and here* as soon as they go to school — even 
the adults — they learn English and are (quot- 
ing 'Prezzolini) the first to be horrified at 
the crude linguistic mixture of their predeces- 
sors. Undoubtedly, the language he describes 
will vanish since it was based on the southern 
dialects of Italian and was the hasty creation 
of peasants abruptly thrust into an urban 
world. The newer immigrants more frequently 
speak standard Italian and are literate , often 
cultured people. So long as their Italian is a 
tool used in a foreign society, though , it must 
adapt , and it will evolve into an American 
Italian much different from the parent language, 

With some exceptions^ the immigrants of any 
nationality are much more concerned with earn- 
ing a living, raising a family, buying a car, 
or any of a host of other things than they are 
in preserving the purity of their native lan- 
guages* Their children will necessarily speak 
a truncated language, adequate for the needs of 
the family or neighborhood, but shot through 
with words borrowed or trans formed from English, 
The value of the family -trained linguist to 
SIGINT should not be underestimated because of 
these limitations, but at the same time it 
should be recognized that this source produces 
only raw material that must be trained and 
deve loped. 



December 75 * CRYPTO LOG * Page 26 



UNCLASSIFIED 



D0CTD: 4009727 



CONFIDENTIAL 



CLA ESSAY CONTEST 



The tenth annual essay contest of the Crypto- 
Linguistic Association -is now open. Papers will 
be accepted until 19 March 1976. A panel of 
three judges will select the three best, which 
will be awarded prizes of $100, $50, and $25 at 
the CLA's spring meeting. Every entry will be 
considered for publication in whichever of the 
Agency publications is most appropriate for its 
content and style. 

The purpose of the contest is to encourage 
writing on topics concerning^ application of 
linguistic knowledge to the solution of Agency- 
related problems. Any writing on cryptology 
or a significantly related topic may be entered. 
Papers may be classified up to TOP SECRET CODE- 



WORD. Any NSA or SCA employee (CLA member or 
nonmember) and any nonemployee CLA member may 
enter the contest. 

Three copies 
of the manuscript 
(preferably typed), 
together with any 
necessary graph- 
ics, should be 
submitted to the 
CLA Secretary, 



Room B5B21, 
8560s. 



Tel. 




P.L. 86-36 



(UNCLASSIFIED) 




CAA-Whafs that? 



"That" is the Communications Analysis Asso- 
ciation, one of the Agency's Learned Organiza- 
tions. The CAA was established in 1968 "to 
promote increased professionalism in the career 
fields of Traffic Analysis and SIGINT Research" 
by encouraging professional contact among its 
members and specialists in related fields; by 
conducting workshops and lectures; by encourag- 
ing the writing of technical papers to document 
the disciplines; and by recognizing those who 
advance the art and science of traffic analysis 
and SIGINT research. Membership in the CAA was 
originally restricted to professionals and as- 
pirants in TA and SR in the U.S. Cryptologic 
family and collaborating agencies, but it was 
later opened to those in the related fields of 
Signals Collection, Signals Analysis, Cryptanal- 
ysis, etc. At one time the Association pub- 
lished the technical magazine COMMAND, now in- 
corporated into CRYPTOLOG. 



So far this 1975-1976 lecture year, the CAA 
has sponsored the following lectures: 

■ "GUARDRAIL" (Col. Norman Campbell), 

■ "Changing Emphasis in the USAFSS" 



(Maj. Gen. H. P. Smith), and 
■ "SI GINT in Vietnam: Lessons Unlearned" 

I 1 



P.L. 86-36 



All three lectures drew standing-room-only audi- 
ences of members and nonmembers to the Friedman 
Auditorium. The Association, under its President, 
Frank Smead, is outlining a program of lectures 
and other activities for 1976 which will be in 
keeping with the organization's stated objec- 
tives. 

Anyone interested in joining the CAA 
should call its Treasurer, Tim Murphy, on 
4787s or its Secretary, Jane Dunn, on 8025s 
for more information. (GOMriDCHTIAD) 



December 75 * CRYPTOLOG * Page 27 



CONFIDENTIAL 



DOCID: 4009727 




UNCLASSIFIED 




Pl-Nov 75-S3-24264 



December 75 * CRYPTOLOG * Page 28 
UNCLASSIFIED 




TI110 DOCUMENT CONTA1N0 CODEWORD MATERIAL 

TOP SECRET